By Alfred A. Bove, Jefferson Davis
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Extra resources for Bove and Davis' Diving Medicine (Fourth Edition)
6 For an ideal gas (see Real and Ideal Gases), the following relationship holds: Cv ln (T2 ÷ T1) = −R ln (V2 ÷ V1 ) where Cv = heat capacity at constant volume, ln = natural logarithm, T = absolute temperatures at condition 1 or 2, R = universal gas constant (see later), and V = volume at condition 1 or 2. This equation can be used to calculate the temperature change following an adiabatic change in volume. The equation indicates that temperature will increase during compression and decrease on expansion of an ideal gas.
If turbidity is high, then the abundance of suspended material increases the amount of both diffusion and absorption that occurs. The diver sees less light in turbid water. Refraction Light travels at different speeds in different substances. Light slows about 25% when it enters water from air. This change in velocity results in a bending of the light path as it changes from air to water. This bending affects light as if it had moved through an optical lens. The alteration in the path of light as a result of changing media is called refraction.
In the same fashion, a portion of the light striking water is reﬂected away from the surface. Near sundown, this effect can signiﬁcantly reduce the amount of ambient light at depth. SOUND Sound is a longitudinal pressure wave that moves through a ﬂuid. Mechanical vibrations caused by the pressure waves produce sound. The ear converts the vibrations to electrical signals that the brain interprets as sound. In air, we can perceive the direction of a sound source by sensing the time delay between the sound energy striking one ear and then the other.