By Eric Keightley Rideal

AN creation TO floor CHEMISTRY by way of ERIC KEIGHTLEY RIDBAL HUMPHREY OWEN JONES LECTURER IN actual CHEMISTRY CAMBRIDGE college CAMBRIDGE on the collage PRESS 1926 Wilt Thou no longer ope the guts to grasp What rainbows train and sunsets ahow EMERSON. c IN nice BBITAIN PREFACE by way of Professor F. G. DONNAN the significance of a correct learn of the activities, equilibria, and buildings which happen at . the interfaces among homo geneous levels of subject is broadly regarded this present day. therefore a data of those concerns is needed for a formal less than status of adsorption, the formation and balance of disperse or micro-heterogeneous platforms colloid sols and gels, catalysis, enzyme activities, etc., when the development of analysis exhibits a growing number of sincerely that the phenomena of lifestyles, i. e. the behaviour of cells and tissues, are in detail excited by the activities taking place at surfaces, and that the consequences produced by way of medicines, disinfectants, and different components which profoundly have an effect on the operation of cells and micro-organisms are mostly as a result of floor activities. From the overall statistical and thermodynamic standpoint, the clinical thought of floor phenomena was once put on a passable foundation through the researches of J. Willard Gibbs, Sir J. J. Thomson, and J. I, van der Waals. In relatively fresh instances the extra in timate molecular research of the buildings and kinetics of surfaces has complex very quickly, thank you, extra specifically to the pioneer paintings of Lord Eayleigh, Andre . Marcelin, Sir W. B. Hardy and Irving Langmuir. Our wisdom of this topic has been drastically elevated over the last few years via the superb paintings of N. Adam and of E. okay. Rideal. The mixed impact of those researches has been to bare the life of a newly known so-called dimensional molecular global, the dynamics of which is similar to that of the standard 3 dimensional molecular global of homogeneous levels in bulk, when the constitution of this floor international offers new phenomena of molecular orientation of the top value for the knowledge of serious areas of usual phenomena. the good benefit of Dr E. okay. Rideals booklet lies within the proven fact that the writer, while in no clever neglecting the thermodynamic therapy and its effects, supplies a truly admirable account of this newer and very very important box of analysis. VI PREFACE considering that this can be additionally the main promising line of improve within the in vestigation of disperse structures, Dr Kideals publication should be so much warmly instructed to all who're drawn to colloid physics and chemistry. within the final chapters the writer offers an excellent creation to the relevant evidence and theories of what's often understood to-day as colloid chemistry, in order that the reader is absolutely provided with every little thing that's priceless for a radical below status of this topic. each pupil and investigator of floor and colloid phenomena owes Dr Rideal a hot debt of gratitude for his admirable survey and presentation of a very good and speedily advancing box of physico-chemical technological know-how. F. G. D. collage university, LONDON. April, 1926. INTEODUOTION crucial variations among the homes of subject whilst JL in bulk and within the colloidal kingdom have been first defined by means of Thomas Graham. The research of colloid chemistry consists of a attention of the shape and behavior of a brand new part, the interfacial part, owning targeted houses. in lots of platforms reactions either actual and chemical are saw that could be attributed to either bulk and interfacial stages. therefore for a formal realizing of colloidal behaviour a data of the houses of surfaces and reactions at interfaces is obviously fascinating. while the stipulations of equilibrium for such platforms have been basically enunciated by way of J. Willard Gibbs and Sir J. J...

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373, 1916) examined an equation of the type and showed that this represented the results of experiment over range of temperature from freezing to critical point which Kamsay's equation even when modified fails to do. An examination of the data however indicates that the constant the full EOTVOS LAW K of Edtvos value 2-2, 27 3 equation is by no means a universal constant of as is revealed by the table on p. 26. For a considerable group the temperature molecular surface energy J0Y aJ. ( Yl \pj is mean coefficient of the found to be in the ) neighbourhood of 2'2 this" group included the saturated hydrocarbons, liquids which of all others would be expected to exist as : simple unassociated molecules.

Chem. LXXIII. 129, 1910). (See Ch. ) A somewhat different means of verifying Gibbs' law may be suggested in connection with the solubility of the higher fatty acids, investigated by Langmuir and Adam (see Chap. in). Here the adsorbed quantity T is readily measured and the chief difficulty consists in estimating the very small concentration of solute in the solution. The latter may however be measured by observing the contraction of a relatively soluble film as it dissolves in the underso obtained might in some cases be lying water, and the solution titrated electrometrically.

M is a vessel which encloses a system in equilibrium. closed surface within the vessel which contains a volume V. For any in energy infinitesimal may be W is a change in a reversible system, the change written (1), SURFACE TENSION OF SOLUTIONS 32 where S the entropy, /^, /j, z the chemical potentials of the components. This equation is true whether is homothe matter within the surface is W W does not geneous or not, so long as When this intersect a phase boundary. condition is not fulfilled, a term of the form

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