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This is true sometimes and false at other times for arrays, making for tricky coding. The primitive string may be considered even lower than a second-class object because it suffers all the second-class behavior of arrays. In addition, its comparison operators (for instance, == and <) do not do what we would normally expect them to do and thus have to be handled as a special case. ^ The vector and string classes are now part of the Standard Library and thus are part of C++. However, many compilers do not yet support them.
The vector and string classes are now part of the Standard Library and thus are part of C++. However, many compilers do not yet support them. 6), and in the process, illustrate how their second-class counterparts are manipulated. 3 This implementation is an acceptable use of the second-class type because the complicated second-class implementation details are hidden and never seen by the user of the first-class objects. As we demonstrate in Chapter 2, the class allows us to define new types. Included in these types are functions that can be applied to objects of the new type.
Suppose that we are reading 1000-byte records and we have 1,000,000 bytes of memory available. Also suppose that, at some point, the array holds 400 records and is full. Then to double, we create an array of 800 records, copy over 400 records, and then delete the 400 records. The problem is that, in this intermediate step, we have both a 400- and an 800-record array in use and that the total of 1200 records exceeds our memory limit. In fact, we can run out of memory after using only roughly one third of the available memory.