By David Wolcott, Tom Head

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S. Constitution and had initially regarded a constitutional rights declaration as unnecessary, changes his mind and joins Thomas Jefferson in advocating a federal Bill of Rights. S. S. Bill of Rights—are adopted by Congress and sent to the states for ratification. 34 Crime and Punishment in America Eyewitness Testimony Smuggling and Free Trade in the North American Colonies Had the colonies been fully heard before the last act had been passed, no reasonable man can suppose it ever would have passed at all, in the manner it now stands.

10 North Carolina and Rhode Island still declined to ratify the Constitution. The establishment of a strong national government alone had distressed many state legislators who supported the idea of 13 independent states, and the prospect of leaving this national government free to pass laws that would violate state declarations of rights seemed unfathomable. ”11 The lack of a bill of rights did not go unnoticed by the former colonial administrators either. S. constitutional convention—took it upon himself to propose a full Bill of Rights in June 1789.

Because they were royal orders, writs of assistance were effective for the life of the reigning monarch but expired upon his or her death. After King George II’s death in 1760, colonial officials were eager to renew the writs of assistance themselves under the principle of royal assent, by which royal orders could be made by government officials acting on behalf of the monarch. When British officials in Massachusetts attempted to renew the writs of assistance for their customs officials in 1761, colonial prosecutor James Otis resigned from his post and argued that the writs of assistance violated the most fundamental principles of British law.

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