By Da Ruan, Da Ruan

In recent times, there was a turning out to be curiosity within the want for designing clever structures to handle advanced determination platforms. probably the most hard matters for the clever procedure is to successfully deal with real-world uncertainties that can not be eradicated. those uncertainties contain numerous kinds of info which are incomplete, obscure, fragmentary, now not absolutely trustworthy, obscure, contradictory, poor, and overloading. The uncertainties lead to an absence of the complete and targeted wisdom of the choice procedure, together with the deciding upon and choice of assessment standards, choices, weights, task ratings, and the ultimate built-in selection end result. Computational clever ideas (including fuzzy common sense, neural networks, and genetic algorithms etc.), that are complimentary to the prevailing conventional recommendations, have proven nice capability to unravel those challenging, real-world choice difficulties that exist in doubtful and unpredictable environments. those applied sciences have shaped the root for clever platforms

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16] Earth sciences and Environment Quah and Sriganesh [104] Online banking Edwards et al. [30] Export behavior Santos et al. [124] Forecasting Matics and Krost [72] Energy management Xu et al. [142] Sound transmission Evolutionary computation, Genetic algorithms, Neural networks Reformat et al. [107] Software quality analysis Evolutionary computation, Particle swarm optimization, Pavlidis et al. [94] Game Theory Neural networks, granular Computing, Rule-based computing Pedrycz [96] Software engineering Neurocomputing, Evolutionary computing, Granular computing Pedrycz and Peters [98] Software engineering Neuro-fuzzy modelling Kothamasu et al.

Calculate the fitness of each tree in the initial population according to a suitable criterion. 3. Create a new population by applying the following operations: i) Copy existing individuals to the new population. ii) Randomly select a pair of existing trees and recombine subtrees from them to produce a new tree. The operations of reproduction and recombination are carried out with the probability Computational Intelligence: Past, Today, and Future 19 of selection for the operations skewed toward selecting individuals with higher levels of fitness.

Two pie charts illustrate the distribution of the papers with respect to the used technique in Figs. 15. 14, the papers using NNs have the highest percentage in 2005 with 16 %. In addition, the largest increase in percentage is observed from 2004 (8 %) to 2005 (16 %) while the largest decrease in percentage is viewed from 2005 (16 %) to 2006 (9 %). 15, the papers using FST have the highest percentage in 2005 with 20 %. Also the largest increase in percentage is observed from 2004 (5 %) to 2005 (20 %) while the largest decrease in percentage is viewed from 2005 (20 %) to 2006 (14 %).

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