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Classical Opening Principles Philidor was ahead of his time, and it wasn't until the latter half of the nineteenth century that players generally accepted the idea that attacks needed to be properly prepared if they were to be successful consistently. Players learned to postpone immediate attacks against the enemy king in favor of intermediate goals, such as the conquest and control of the center. Direct attacks would only be justified after some strategic advantage had been obtained. The art of defending against premature attacks rose to new heights in the games and writings of Wilhelm Steinitz ( 1 836-1900) , who was the first official World Champion.

Variation 1: One variation of the Scotch Game is: e4 e5 C2Jf3 ctJc6 d4 exd4 ctJ xd4 lieS . Black will be able to complete development comfortably, but white's pawn on e4 will provide a small, yet lasting, spatial advantage. Board 2 Here is a typical continuation: lie3 VJi/f6 c3 C2Jge7 lic4 0-0 0-0 Jib6. sa 15s G A M E TYP E S/OP E N G A M E S Board Variation 2: . e4 e5 CZJf3 CZJc6 d4 exd4 CZJ xd4 CZJ£6. White will try to maintain this pawn on e5 in order to cramp black's game. 1 1 8) by the ' bishop on a6, which will be able to capture white's queen.

The knight defends the bishop, which attacks the queen. After the queen retreats, white will have two or more pieces developed to black's one. White could have captured the pawn on d4 with either the knight or the queen, but chose to develop quickly instead. The bishop is attacking the black queen, which must waste another move in order to avoid capture. White has three pieces developed to black's one. White has developed quickly, but black has not. Board 3 40 /4 1 O P E N I N G P R I N GIP L E S / GlAS S I CA L �--- Castle Early Another classical principle related to centralization was the suggestion to castle early.

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