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Procedure. Remove the excess nitric acid from the solution of the metal ions by evaporation, and dilute to 150 ml. During this procedure the solution usually becomes turbid owing to the formation of basic bismuth nitrate. Next add 2 N potassium carbonate (not sodium carbonate, because this dissolves the precipitate slightly) dropwise in the presence of phenolphthalein, until the red colour of the indicator just appears. Then add a slight excess of a 5% solution of rhodanide-free potassium cyanide t o the solution, and heat in a fumecupboard on a water bath for 1-2 hr, while any dissolved bismuth precipitates quantitatively.

TRTILEK, Chem. Obzor, 9,68 (1934); C. ,28,5001 (1934); V. HOVORKA, Chem. Listy, 31, 273 (1937); C. ,31, 6997 (1937); Collection Czechoslov. Chem. , 9, 191 (1937). 7. C. H .

Under these conditions m a n y metal ions form precipitates with chromate ions, and t h e determination is n o t specific. The method is of practical importance, however, because t h e determination can be carried out very rapidly, and also lead chromate can be directly precipitated from solutions of lead sulphate which contain ammonium acetate. Under these conditions the p H is not optimal for t h e precipitation because t h e precipitate retains some excess chromate (F. Grote, 1911), and it is advisable to use a practical factor in t h e calculations which is 0-5% smaller t h a n t h e theoretical one.

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