By Yury Gogotsi and Volker Presser

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However, the harsh oxidation conditions used in the process strongly degrade the quality of the resulting nanoribbons and consequently limit their applications because even minor deviations from the ideal shape of the edges significantly deteriorate the material properties. In fact, there is a close fundamental connection between the electrical performance and their structures, such as the width, the edge periphery, and the occurrence of the defects. Therefore, reliable production of graphene nanoribbons with atomic precision has remained a big challenge up to now.

6, Fasolino, A. ) (b) Generation of wrinkles in graphene on substrate. , 149, Guinea, F. ) (c) Schematics of simple ripple, standing collapsed wrinkle, and folded wrinkle. (With permission from Zhu, W. J. 122 The formation of ripples in graphene sheet may also be induced by their chemical and physical environment. The presence or formation of vacancies and sp3 bonds can interrupt the conjugation and make the graphene surface buckle over short ranges. As a result, bending of a graphene sheet can cause changes in the distance and relative angle between the carbon atoms, and eventually affect hybridization of the π-orbitals, as in the cases of fullerene and CNTs.

M. , Chem. , 2565, 2009. ) (b) Modification of GO by acylation reaction after SOCl2 activation; (From Zhang, X. , Carbon, 47, 334, 2009; Niyogi, S. , J. Am. Chem. , 128, 7720, 2006; Xu, Y. , Adv. , 21, 1275, 2009. ) (c) Ring open reaction of GO by amine-terminated organic molecules (From Wang, S. , Adv. , 20, 3440, 2008; Yang, H. , Chem. , 3880, 2009; Touhara, H. , Carbon, 38, 241, 2000; Xu, Z. , ACS Nano, 5, 2908, 2011. ) (d) Functionalization of GO by isocyanates that can interact with both carboxyl and hydroxyl groups.

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