By Suman Sahai, Prasmi Pavithran, Indrani Barpujari

Wisdom, in all its manifestations, is effective. Of specific value is the data inherent within the wisdom structures of rural and indigenous groups built because of lengthy and non-stop interplay with the advanced ecosystems which they inhabit. known as Indigenous wisdom or IK, this data is really a hugely refined expertise and has been the mainstay of survival of groups specially within the key sectors of nutrition and health and wellbeing. With constructing international locations being the repository of a massive a part of the world's organic assets it's not staggering that individuals and groups of those international locations were innovating, deciding upon, holding and keeping neighborhood species for a long time. Biodiversity, and the indigenous wisdom linked to it, is a unique power of the neighborhood groups which are present in present day constructing international locations.

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Nimba, the great medicine for the cure of pitta, aggravations and for blood purifications. R Grace (Patent no. 0436257 B1) on a fungicide Biopiracy: Imitations Not Innovations 35 formation from the seeds of the Indian medicinal tree neem by the EPO. The patent concerns a hydrophobic extracted neem oil - a fungicide from neem seed that exhibits the ability to control various fungi. A legal opposition to this patent was lodged and the patent was revoked on 11 May, 2000 after evidence was shown to prove that this technique that was sought to be patented was well known to local farmers and lacked any inventive step.

The patents granted by the USPTO include: US Patent 6,042,834: Herbal composition for diabetes and method of treatment. US Patent 5,653,981: Pharmaceutical composition to increase the immune 48 Biopiracy: Imitations Not Innovations function, with the composition containing an extract of the plant Nigella sativa. US Patent 5,648,089: Herbal formulation for the treatment of viral and hepatitis diseases. Some patent applications filed with the PCT that are awaiting approval (as of year 2000) include the following: PCT WO 0051580 A2: Pharmaceutical composition used in asthma/allergy therapy that targets T-lymphocytes and or eosinophilis.

Part/s used: Roots, fruits and leaves. Action and indigenous use of the plant: An important medicinal plant in the indigenous system of medicine. The roots are sweet, astringent, bitter and febrifugal. They are useful in diarrhoea, dysentery, dyspepsia, stomachalgia, cardiopalmus, seminal weakness, uropathy, vomiting, intermittent fever, swellings and gastric irritability in infants. The leaves are astringent, laxative, febrifugal and expectorant, useful in ophthalmia, deafness, inflammations, catarrh, diabetes and asthmatic complaints.

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