By Nigel Saunders, Angela Saunders, Sandra Clinton, Max Parsonage, Emma Poole

Fresh, up to date chemistry textual content for the hot AQA AS Chemistry specification beginning in 2008. Emphasises How technological know-how Works and is deal to follow-on from GCSE as a hugely available textual content for complicated examine.

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For example, the electron configuration of the copper(II) ion, Cu21, is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d9. • ionic bonding is the strong force of attraction between oppositely charged ions already from AS Level, you know •h  ow to represent the electron configurations of atoms and ions from Z 5 1 to Z 5 36 in terms of levels and sub-levels and after this spread you should •u  nderstand that ionic bonding involves attraction between oppositely charged ions in a lattice • k now the structure of the sodium chloride crystal Dot and cross diagrams The formation of ions is often shown by a dot and cross diagram.

Unless you are told otherwise, you should assume that Vm is measured at standard temperature and pressure, STP. 15 K (assumed to be 273 K at A Level). • Standard pressure is 1 3 105 Pa. The ideal gas equation is pV = nRT. 7 dm3 Simple reacting volume calculations Worked example Hydrogen reacts explosively with oxygen. AM O U N t O F S U B S TAN CE Defining STP Standard pressure used to be defined by IUPAC as 1 atmosphere. 01325 3 105 Pa. 4dm3. Many text books and websites still use this value for Vm.

09moldm–3. Note that you do not have to use any Mr values in these calculations. The factor of 1000 In step 4, you have to divide the volume in cm3 by 1000 to convert it to dm3. You then have to do the same thing in step 6. One easy way to tackle this is to remember that wherever the volume in cm3 appears in these calculations, you need to put 1000 on the opposite side of the line. So if the volume is on the top, the 1000 goes on the bottom. If the volume is on the bottom, the 1000 goes on the top.

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